Calculating The Intrinsic Value Of Abak S.A. (WSE:ABK)

By
Simply Wall St
Published
February 19, 2022
WSE:ABK
Source: Shutterstock

Today we will run through one way of estimating the intrinsic value of Abak S.A. (WSE:ABK) by estimating the company's future cash flows and discounting them to their present value. Our analysis will employ the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model. There's really not all that much to it, even though it might appear quite complex.

We generally believe that a company's value is the present value of all of the cash it will generate in the future. However, a DCF is just one valuation metric among many, and it is not without flaws. For those who are keen learners of equity analysis, the Simply Wall St analysis model here may be something of interest to you.

Check out our latest analysis for Abak

Crunching the numbers

We use what is known as a 2-stage model, which simply means we have two different periods of growth rates for the company's cash flows. Generally the first stage is higher growth, and the second stage is a lower growth phase. To begin with, we have to get estimates of the next ten years of cash flows. Seeing as no analyst estimates of free cash flow are available to us, we have extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the company's last reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.

Generally we assume that a dollar today is more valuable than a dollar in the future, so we need to discount the sum of these future cash flows to arrive at a present value estimate:

10-year free cash flow (FCF) estimate

2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031
Levered FCF (PLN, Millions) zł952.8k zł868.0k zł820.3k zł794.9k zł783.5k zł781.5k zł785.8k zł794.7k zł806.9k zł821.6k
Growth Rate Estimate Source Est @ -13.77% Est @ -8.9% Est @ -5.49% Est @ -3.1% Est @ -1.43% Est @ -0.26% Est @ 0.56% Est @ 1.13% Est @ 1.53% Est @ 1.81%
Present Value (PLN, Millions) Discounted @ 7.3% zł0.9 zł0.8 zł0.7 zł0.6 zł0.6 zł0.5 zł0.5 zł0.5 zł0.4 zł0.4

("Est" = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF) = zł5.0m

The second stage is also known as Terminal Value, this is the business's cash flow after the first stage. For a number of reasons a very conservative growth rate is used that cannot exceed that of a country's GDP growth. In this case we have used the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield (2.5%) to estimate future growth. In the same way as with the 10-year 'growth' period, we discount future cash flows to today's value, using a cost of equity of 7.3%.

Terminal Value (TV)= FCF2031 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = zł822k× (1 + 2.5%) ÷ (7.3%– 2.5%) = zł17m

Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)10= zł17m÷ ( 1 + 7.3%)10= zł8.6m

The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is zł14m. To get the intrinsic value per share, we divide this by the total number of shares outstanding. Compared to the current share price of zł4.2, the company appears about fair value at a 18% discount to where the stock price trades currently. Remember though, that this is just an approximate valuation, and like any complex formula - garbage in, garbage out.

dcf
WSE:ABK Discounted Cash Flow February 19th 2022

The assumptions

The calculation above is very dependent on two assumptions. The first is the discount rate and the other is the cash flows. If you don't agree with these result, have a go at the calculation yourself and play with the assumptions. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company's future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company's potential performance. Given that we are looking at Abak as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we've used 7.3%, which is based on a levered beta of 0.953. Beta is a measure of a stock's volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.

Looking Ahead:

Although the valuation of a company is important, it ideally won't be the sole piece of analysis you scrutinize for a company. It's not possible to obtain a foolproof valuation with a DCF model. Rather it should be seen as a guide to "what assumptions need to be true for this stock to be under/overvalued?" For example, changes in the company's cost of equity or the risk free rate can significantly impact the valuation. For Abak, there are three additional aspects you should further examine:

  1. Risks: Consider for instance, the ever-present spectre of investment risk. We've identified 3 warning signs with Abak (at least 1 which shouldn't be ignored) , and understanding them should be part of your investment process.
  2. Other Solid Businesses: Low debt, high returns on equity and good past performance are fundamental to a strong business. Why not explore our interactive list of stocks with solid business fundamentals to see if there are other companies you may not have considered!
  3. Other Environmentally-Friendly Companies: Concerned about the environment and think consumers will buy eco-friendly products more and more? Browse through our interactive list of companies that are thinking about a greener future to discover some stocks you may not have thought of!

PS. The Simply Wall St app conducts a discounted cash flow valuation for every stock on the WSE every day. If you want to find the calculation for other stocks just search here.

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