Stock Analysis

Is Exxon Mobil (NYSE:XOM) Using Too Much Debt?

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David Iben put it well when he said, 'Volatility is not a risk we care about. What we care about is avoiding the permanent loss of capital.' So it seems the smart money knows that debt - which is usually involved in bankruptcies - is a very important factor, when you assess how risky a company is. We can see that Exxon Mobil Corporation (NYSE:XOM) does use debt in its business. But should shareholders be worried about its use of debt?

When Is Debt Dangerous?

Debt and other liabilities become risky for a business when it cannot easily fulfill those obligations, either with free cash flow or by raising capital at an attractive price. Part and parcel of capitalism is the process of 'creative destruction' where failed businesses are mercilessly liquidated by their bankers. However, a more usual (but still expensive) situation is where a company must dilute shareholders at a cheap share price simply to get debt under control. Of course, plenty of companies use debt to fund growth, without any negative consequences. The first step when considering a company's debt levels is to consider its cash and debt together.

See our latest analysis for Exxon Mobil

What Is Exxon Mobil's Net Debt?

As you can see below, Exxon Mobil had US$56.2b of debt at March 2021, down from US$59.6b a year prior. However, because it has a cash reserve of US$3.52b, its net debt is less, at about US$52.7b.

NYSE:XOM Debt to Equity History June 9th 2021

A Look At Exxon Mobil's Liabilities

The latest balance sheet data shows that Exxon Mobil had liabilities of US$60.2b due within a year, and liabilities of US$109.5b falling due after that. On the other hand, it had cash of US$3.52b and US$24.8b worth of receivables due within a year. So it has liabilities totalling US$141.4b more than its cash and near-term receivables, combined.

Exxon Mobil has a very large market capitalization of US$263.0b, so it could very likely raise cash to ameliorate its balance sheet, if the need arose. But it's clear that we should definitely closely examine whether it can manage its debt without dilution. The balance sheet is clearly the area to focus on when you are analysing debt. But it is future earnings, more than anything, that will determine Exxon Mobil's ability to maintain a healthy balance sheet going forward. So if you want to see what the professionals think, you might find this free report on analyst profit forecasts to be interesting.

Over 12 months, Exxon Mobil made a loss at the EBIT level, and saw its revenue drop to US$182b, which is a fall of 27%. To be frank that doesn't bode well.

Caveat Emptor

Not only did Exxon Mobil's revenue slip over the last twelve months, but it also produced negative earnings before interest and tax (EBIT). To be specific the EBIT loss came in at US$171m. Considering that alongside the liabilities mentioned above does not give us much confidence that company should be using so much debt. So we think its balance sheet is a little strained, though not beyond repair. We would feel better if it turned its trailing twelve month loss of US$19b into a profit. So to be blunt we do think it is risky. The balance sheet is clearly the area to focus on when you are analysing debt. However, not all investment risk resides within the balance sheet - far from it. For example, we've discovered 1 warning sign for Exxon Mobil that you should be aware of before investing here.

When all is said and done, sometimes its easier to focus on companies that don't even need debt. Readers can access a list of growth stocks with zero net debt 100% free, right now.

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