Howard Marks put it nicely when he said that, rather than worrying about share price volatility, 'The possibility of permanent loss is the risk I worry about... and every practical investor I know worries about.' So it might be obvious that you need to consider debt, when you think about how risky any given stock is, because too much debt can sink a company. We note that Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (MCX:GAZP) does have debt on its balance sheet. But is this debt a concern to shareholders?
What Risk Does Debt Bring?
Debt assists a business until the business has trouble paying it off, either with new capital or with free cash flow. Part and parcel of capitalism is the process of 'creative destruction' where failed businesses are mercilessly liquidated by their bankers. However, a more usual (but still expensive) situation is where a company must dilute shareholders at a cheap share price simply to get debt under control. Of course, debt can be an important tool in businesses, particularly capital heavy businesses. When we think about a company's use of debt, we first look at cash and debt together.
How Much Debt Does Gazprom Carry?
As you can see below, at the end of September 2020, Gazprom had ₽4.92t of debt, up from ₽3.82t a year ago. Click the image for more detail. However, because it has a cash reserve of ₽591.8b, its net debt is less, at about ₽4.33t.
A Look At Gazprom's Liabilities
According to the last reported balance sheet, Gazprom had liabilities of ₽2.25t due within 12 months, and liabilities of ₽5.87t due beyond 12 months. Offsetting these obligations, it had cash of ₽591.8b as well as receivables valued at ₽1.15t due within 12 months. So its liabilities outweigh the sum of its cash and (near-term) receivables by ₽6.38t.
Given this deficit is actually higher than the company's massive market capitalization of ₽4.73t, we think shareholders really should watch Gazprom's debt levels, like a parent watching their child ride a bike for the first time. Hypothetically, extremely heavy dilution would be required if the company were forced to pay down its liabilities by raising capital at the current share price.
We measure a company's debt load relative to its earnings power by looking at its net debt divided by its earnings before interest, tax, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA) and by calculating how easily its earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) cover its interest expense (interest cover). The advantage of this approach is that we take into account both the absolute quantum of debt (with net debt to EBITDA) and the actual interest expenses associated with that debt (with its interest cover ratio).
Gazprom has a debt to EBITDA ratio of 3.6, which signals significant debt, but is still pretty reasonable for most types of business. However, its interest coverage of 149 is very high, suggesting that the interest expense on the debt is currently quite low. Shareholders should be aware that Gazprom's EBIT was down 74% last year. If that decline continues then paying off debt will be harder than selling foie gras at a vegan convention. There's no doubt that we learn most about debt from the balance sheet. But it is future earnings, more than anything, that will determine Gazprom's ability to maintain a healthy balance sheet going forward. So if you're focused on the future you can check out this free report showing analyst profit forecasts.
Finally, a company can only pay off debt with cold hard cash, not accounting profits. So we clearly need to look at whether that EBIT is leading to corresponding free cash flow. Considering the last three years, Gazprom actually recorded a cash outflow, overall. Debt is usually more expensive, and almost always more risky in the hands of a company with negative free cash flow. Shareholders ought to hope for an improvement.
On the face of it, Gazprom's level of total liabilities left us tentative about the stock, and its EBIT growth rate was no more enticing than the one empty restaurant on the busiest night of the year. But on the bright side, its interest cover is a good sign, and makes us more optimistic. Taking into account all the aforementioned factors, it looks like Gazprom has too much debt. That sort of riskiness is ok for some, but it certainly doesn't float our boat. There's no doubt that we learn most about debt from the balance sheet. However, not all investment risk resides within the balance sheet - far from it. For example, we've discovered 2 warning signs for Gazprom that you should be aware of before investing here.
At the end of the day, it's often better to focus on companies that are free from net debt. You can access our special list of such companies (all with a track record of profit growth). It's free.
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Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom, an integrated energy company, engages in the geological exploration, production, processing, storage, transportation, and sale of gas, gas condensates, and oil in Russia and internationally.
Excellent balance sheet with solid track record and pays a dividend.