Stock Analysis

An Intrinsic Calculation For Carlsberg A/S (CPH:CARL B) Suggests It's 49% Undervalued

How far off is Carlsberg A/S (CPH:CARL B) from its intrinsic value? Using the most recent financial data, we'll take a look at whether the stock is fairly priced by taking the expected future cash flows and discounting them to today's value. We will take advantage of the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model for this purpose. Before you think you won't be able to understand it, just read on! It's actually much less complex than you'd imagine.

Companies can be valued in a lot of ways, so we would point out that a DCF is not perfect for every situation. For those who are keen learners of equity analysis, the Simply Wall St analysis model here may be something of interest to you.

Our analysis indicates that CARL B is potentially undervalued!

The Model

We are going to use a two-stage DCF model, which, as the name states, takes into account two stages of growth. The first stage is generally a higher growth period which levels off heading towards the terminal value, captured in the second 'steady growth' period. To start off with, we need to estimate the next ten years of cash flows. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren't available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.

A DCF is all about the idea that a dollar in the future is less valuable than a dollar today, and so the sum of these future cash flows is then discounted to today's value:

10-year free cash flow (FCF) estimate

 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 Levered FCF (DKK, Millions) kr.9.07b kr.9.76b kr.9.41b kr.10.1b kr.10.3b kr.10.4b kr.10.5b kr.10.6b kr.10.7b kr.10.7b Growth Rate Estimate Source Analyst x10 Analyst x10 Analyst x1 Analyst x1 Est @ 1.95% Est @ 1.42% Est @ 1.05% Est @ 0.79% Est @ 0.61% Est @ 0.48% Present Value (DKK, Millions) Discounted @ 4.3% kr.8.7k kr.9.0k kr.8.3k kr.8.5k kr.8.3k kr.8.1k kr.7.8k kr.7.6k kr.7.3k kr.7.0k

("Est" = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF) = kr.81b

We now need to calculate the Terminal Value, which accounts for all the future cash flows after this ten year period. For a number of reasons a very conservative growth rate is used that cannot exceed that of a country's GDP growth. In this case we have used the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield (0.2%) to estimate future growth. In the same way as with the 10-year 'growth' period, we discount future cash flows to today's value, using a cost of equity of 4.3%.

Terminal Value (TV)= FCF2032 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = kr.11b× (1 + 0.2%) ÷ (4.3%– 0.2%) = kr.260b

Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)10= kr.260b÷ ( 1 + 4.3%)10= kr.170b

The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is kr.251b. The last step is to then divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. Compared to the current share price of kr.924, the company appears quite good value at a 49% discount to where the stock price trades currently. The assumptions in any calculation have a big impact on the valuation, so it is better to view this as a rough estimate, not precise down to the last cent.

Important Assumptions

Now the most important inputs to a discounted cash flow are the discount rate, and of course, the actual cash flows. Part of investing is coming up with your own evaluation of a company's future performance, so try the calculation yourself and check your own assumptions. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company's future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company's potential performance. Given that we are looking at Carlsberg as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we've used 4.3%, which is based on a levered beta of 0.805. Beta is a measure of a stock's volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.

Looking Ahead:

Valuation is only one side of the coin in terms of building your investment thesis, and it is only one of many factors that you need to assess for a company. The DCF model is not a perfect stock valuation tool. Rather it should be seen as a guide to "what assumptions need to be true for this stock to be under/overvalued?" For instance, if the terminal value growth rate is adjusted slightly, it can dramatically alter the overall result. Can we work out why the company is trading at a discount to intrinsic value? For Carlsberg, we've put together three additional aspects you should explore:

1. Risks: Every company has them, and we've spotted 1 warning sign for Carlsberg you should know about.
2. Future Earnings: How does CARL B's growth rate compare to its peers and the wider market? Dig deeper into the analyst consensus number for the upcoming years by interacting with our free analyst growth expectation chart.
3. Other Solid Businesses: Low debt, high returns on equity and good past performance are fundamental to a strong business. Why not explore our interactive list of stocks with solid business fundamentals to see if there are other companies you may not have considered!

PS. The Simply Wall St app conducts a discounted cash flow valuation for every stock on the CPSE every day. If you want to find the calculation for other stocks just search here.

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Have feedback on this article? Concerned about the content? Get in touch with us directly. Alternatively, email editorial-team (at) simplywallst.com.

This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. We provide commentary based on historical data and analyst forecasts only using an unbiased methodology and our articles are not intended to be financial advice. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. We aim to bring you long-term focused analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest price-sensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in any stocks mentioned.

About CPSE:CARL B

Carlsberg

Produces and sells beer and other beverage products in Denmark, China, the United Kingdom, and internationally.

Very undervalued established dividend payer.