Stock Analysis

Yanbu Cement Company (TADAWUL:3060) Shares Could Be 43% Below Their Intrinsic Value Estimate

SASE:3060
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Today we'll do a simple run through of a valuation method used to estimate the attractiveness of Yanbu Cement Company (TADAWUL:3060) as an investment opportunity by taking the forecast future cash flows of the company and discounting them back to today's value. Our analysis will employ the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model. Believe it or not, it's not too difficult to follow, as you'll see from our example!

We generally believe that a company's value is the present value of all of the cash it will generate in the future. However, a DCF is just one valuation metric among many, and it is not without flaws. Anyone interested in learning a bit more about intrinsic value should have a read of the Simply Wall St analysis model.

Check out our latest analysis for Yanbu Cement

Is Yanbu Cement fairly valued?

We are going to use a two-stage DCF model, which, as the name states, takes into account two stages of growth. The first stage is generally a higher growth period which levels off heading towards the terminal value, captured in the second 'steady growth' period. In the first stage we need to estimate the cash flows to the business over the next ten years. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren't available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.

A DCF is all about the idea that a dollar in the future is less valuable than a dollar today, so we discount the value of these future cash flows to their estimated value in today's dollars:

10-year free cash flow (FCF) forecast

2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031
Levered FCF (SAR, Millions) ر.س617.0m ر.س645.0m ر.س680.5m ر.س724.9m ر.س777.1m ر.س836.9m ر.س904.2m ر.س979.1m ر.س1.06b ر.س1.15b
Growth Rate Estimate Source Analyst x1 Analyst x1 Est @ 5.51% Est @ 6.51% Est @ 7.21% Est @ 7.7% Est @ 8.04% Est @ 8.28% Est @ 8.45% Est @ 8.57%
Present Value (SAR, Millions) Discounted @ 13% ر.س545 ر.س504 ر.س470 ر.س442 ر.س419 ر.س399 ر.س381 ر.س364 ر.س349 ر.س335

("Est" = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF) = ر.س4.2b

We now need to calculate the Terminal Value, which accounts for all the future cash flows after this ten year period. The Gordon Growth formula is used to calculate Terminal Value at a future annual growth rate equal to the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield of 8.8%. We discount the terminal cash flows to today's value at a cost of equity of 13%.

Terminal Value (TV)= FCF2031 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = ر.س1.2b× (1 + 8.8%) ÷ (13%– 8.8%) = ر.س29b

Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)10= ر.س29b÷ ( 1 + 13%)10= ر.س8.4b

The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is ر.س13b. In the final step we divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. Compared to the current share price of ر.س45.9, the company appears quite good value at a 43% discount to where the stock price trades currently. Valuations are imprecise instruments though, rather like a telescope - move a few degrees and end up in a different galaxy. Do keep this in mind.

dcf
SASE:3060 Discounted Cash Flow July 29th 2021

The assumptions

The calculation above is very dependent on two assumptions. The first is the discount rate and the other is the cash flows. If you don't agree with these result, have a go at the calculation yourself and play with the assumptions. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company's future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company's potential performance. Given that we are looking at Yanbu Cement as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we've used 13%, which is based on a levered beta of 0.800. Beta is a measure of a stock's volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.

Looking Ahead:

Valuation is only one side of the coin in terms of building your investment thesis, and it ideally won't be the sole piece of analysis you scrutinize for a company. The DCF model is not a perfect stock valuation tool. Rather it should be seen as a guide to "what assumptions need to be true for this stock to be under/overvalued?" For instance, if the terminal value growth rate is adjusted slightly, it can dramatically alter the overall result. Why is the intrinsic value higher than the current share price? For Yanbu Cement, there are three additional aspects you should assess:

  1. Risks: For example, we've discovered 1 warning sign for Yanbu Cement that you should be aware of before investing here.
  2. Future Earnings: How does 3060's growth rate compare to its peers and the wider market? Dig deeper into the analyst consensus number for the upcoming years by interacting with our free analyst growth expectation chart.
  3. Other Solid Businesses: Low debt, high returns on equity and good past performance are fundamental to a strong business. Why not explore our interactive list of stocks with solid business fundamentals to see if there are other companies you may not have considered!

PS. The Simply Wall St app conducts a discounted cash flow valuation for every stock on the SASE every day. If you want to find the calculation for other stocks just search here.

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