Does the August share price for Skanska AB (publ) (STO:SKA B) reflect what it’s really worth? Today, we will estimate the stock’s intrinsic value by taking the expected future cash flows and discounting them to today’s value. I will use the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model. Don’t get put off by the jargon, the math behind it is actually quite straightforward.
Companies can be valued in a lot of ways, so we would point out that a DCF is not perfect for every situation. Anyone interested in learning a bit more about intrinsic value should have a read of the Simply Wall St analysis model.
We are going to use a two-stage DCF model, which, as the name states, takes into account two stages of growth. The first stage is generally a higher growth period which levels off heading towards the terminal value, captured in the second ‘steady growth’ period. To start off with, we need to estimate the next ten years of cash flows. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren’t available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.
A DCF is all about the idea that a dollar in the future is less valuable than a dollar today, so we discount the value of these future cash flows to their estimated value in today’s dollars:
10-year free cash flow (FCF) estimate
|Levered FCF (SEK, Millions)||SEK6.7b||SEK6.6b||SEK6.5b||SEK6.5b||SEK6.4b||SEK6.4b||SEK6.4b||SEK6.4b||SEK6.5b||SEK6.5b|
|Growth Rate Estimate Source||Analyst x1||Analyst x1||Est @ -1.1%||Est @ -0.64%||Est @ -0.32%||Est @ -0.09%||Est @ 0.07%||Est @ 0.18%||Est @ 0.25%||Est @ 0.31%|
|Present Value (SEK, Millions) Discounted @ 7.23%||SEK6.2k||SEK5.7k||SEK5.3k||SEK4.9k||SEK4.5k||SEK4.2k||SEK3.9k||SEK3.7k||SEK3.4k||SEK3.2k|
(“Est” = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF)= SEK45.2b
After calculating the present value of future cash flows in the intial 10-year period, we need to calculate the Terminal Value, which accounts for all future cash flows beyond the first stage. For a number of reasons a very conservative growth rate is used that cannot exceed that of a country’s GDP growth. In this case we have used the 10-year government bond rate (0.4%) to estimate future growth. In the same way as with the 10-year ‘growth’ period, we discount future cash flows to today’s value, using a cost of equity of 7.2%.
Terminal Value (TV) = FCF2029 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = kr6.5b × (1 + 0.4%) ÷ (7.2% – 0.4%) = kr96b
Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV) = TV / (1 + r)10 = SEKkr96b ÷ ( 1 + 7.2%)10 = SEK47.66b
The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is SEK92.85b. The last step is to then divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. This results in an intrinsic value estimate of SEK226.06. Compared to the current share price of SEK174.55, the company appears a touch undervalued at a 23% discount to where the stock price trades currently. Valuations are imprecise instruments though, rather like a telescope – move a few degrees and end up in a different galaxy. Do keep this in mind.
Now the most important inputs to a discounted cash flow are the discount rate, and of course, the actual cash flows. You don’t have to agree with these inputs, I recommend redoing the calculations yourself and playing with them. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company’s future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company’s potential performance. Given that we are looking at Skanska as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we’ve used 7.2%, which is based on a levered beta of 1.141. Beta is a measure of a stock’s volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.
Valuation is only one side of the coin in terms of building your investment thesis, and it shouldn’t be the only metric you look at when researching a company. The DCF model is not a perfect stock valuation tool. Rather it should be seen as a guide to “what assumptions need to be true for this stock to be under/overvalued?” If a company grows at a different rate, or if its cost of equity or risk free rate changes sharply, the output can look very different. What is the reason for the share price to differ from the intrinsic value? For Skanska, There are three pertinent aspects you should further research:
- Financial Health: Does SKA B have a healthy balance sheet? Take a look at our free balance sheet analysis with six simple checks on key factors like leverage and risk.
- Future Earnings: How does SKA B’s growth rate compare to its peers and the wider market? Dig deeper into the analyst consensus number for the upcoming years by interacting with our free analyst growth expectation chart.
- Other High Quality Alternatives: Are there other high quality stocks you could be holding instead of SKA B? Explore our interactive list of high quality stocks to get an idea of what else is out there you may be missing!
PS. The Simply Wall St app conducts a discounted cash flow valuation for every stock on the STO every day. If you want to find the calculation for other stocks just search here.
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