Stock Analysis

# Estimating The Fair Value Of Array Technologies, Inc. (NASDAQ:ARRY)

Today we'll do a simple run through of a valuation method used to estimate the attractiveness of Array Technologies, Inc. (NASDAQ:ARRY) as an investment opportunity by estimating the company's future cash flows and discounting them to their present value. This will be done using the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model. Don't get put off by the jargon, the math behind it is actually quite straightforward.

We generally believe that a company's value is the present value of all of the cash it will generate in the future. However, a DCF is just one valuation metric among many, and it is not without flaws. If you still have some burning questions about this type of valuation, take a look at the Simply Wall St analysis model.

View our latest analysis for Array Technologies

## The Calculation

We are going to use a two-stage DCF model, which, as the name states, takes into account two stages of growth. The first stage is generally a higher growth period which levels off heading towards the terminal value, captured in the second 'steady growth' period. In the first stage we need to estimate the cash flows to the business over the next ten years. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren't available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.

A DCF is all about the idea that a dollar in the future is less valuable than a dollar today, and so the sum of these future cash flows is then discounted to today's value:

#### 10-year free cash flow (FCF) estimate

 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 Levered FCF (\$, Millions) US\$102.5m US\$124.2m US\$259.6m US\$276.0m US\$311.0m US\$336.7m US\$358.3m US\$376.4m US\$392.0m US\$405.7m Growth Rate Estimate Source Analyst x8 Analyst x6 Analyst x3 Analyst x1 Analyst x1 Est @ 8.28% Est @ 6.39% Est @ 5.07% Est @ 4.14% Est @ 3.49% Present Value (\$, Millions) Discounted @ 9.8% US\$93.4 US\$103 US\$196 US\$190 US\$195 US\$192 US\$186 US\$178 US\$169 US\$160

("Est" = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF) = US\$1.7b

We now need to calculate the Terminal Value, which accounts for all the future cash flows after this ten year period. For a number of reasons a very conservative growth rate is used that cannot exceed that of a country's GDP growth. In this case we have used the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield (2.0%) to estimate future growth. In the same way as with the 10-year 'growth' period, we discount future cash flows to today's value, using a cost of equity of 9.8%.

Terminal Value (TV)= FCF2032 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = US\$406m× (1 + 2.0%) ÷ (9.8%– 2.0%) = US\$5.3b

Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)10= US\$5.3b÷ ( 1 + 9.8%)10= US\$2.1b

The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is US\$3.8b. In the final step we divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. Relative to the current share price of US\$22.2, the company appears about fair value at a 11% discount to where the stock price trades currently. Remember though, that this is just an approximate valuation, and like any complex formula - garbage in, garbage out.

## Important Assumptions

Now the most important inputs to a discounted cash flow are the discount rate, and of course, the actual cash flows. Part of investing is coming up with your own evaluation of a company's future performance, so try the calculation yourself and check your own assumptions. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company's future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company's potential performance. Given that we are looking at Array Technologies as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we've used 9.8%, which is based on a levered beta of 1.297. Beta is a measure of a stock's volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.

### SWOT Analysis for Array Technologies

Strength
• Debt is well covered by earnings.
Weakness
• No major weaknesses identified for ARRY.
Opportunity
• Expected to breakeven next year.
• Current share price is below our estimate of fair value.
Threat
• Debt is not well covered by operating cash flow.
• Has less than 3 years of cash runway based on current free cash flow.

## Next Steps:

Valuation is only one side of the coin in terms of building your investment thesis, and it ideally won't be the sole piece of analysis you scrutinize for a company. It's not possible to obtain a foolproof valuation with a DCF model. Rather it should be seen as a guide to "what assumptions need to be true for this stock to be under/overvalued?" If a company grows at a different rate, or if its cost of equity or risk free rate changes sharply, the output can look very different. For Array Technologies, we've put together three essential aspects you should consider:

1. Risks: To that end, you should be aware of the 1 warning sign we've spotted with Array Technologies .
2. Management:Have insiders been ramping up their shares to take advantage of the market's sentiment for ARRY's future outlook? Check out our management and board analysis with insights on CEO compensation and governance factors.
3. Other Solid Businesses: Low debt, high returns on equity and good past performance are fundamental to a strong business. Why not explore our interactive list of stocks with solid business fundamentals to see if there are other companies you may not have considered!

PS. The Simply Wall St app conducts a discounted cash flow valuation for every stock on the NASDAQGM every day. If you want to find the calculation for other stocks just search here.

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This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. We provide commentary based on historical data and analyst forecasts only using an unbiased methodology and our articles are not intended to be financial advice. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. We aim to bring you long-term focused analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest price-sensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in any stocks mentioned.