Stock Analysis

# A Look At The Fair Value Of PVR Limited (NSE:PVR)

How far off is PVR Limited (NSE:PVR) from its intrinsic value? Using the most recent financial data, we'll take a look at whether the stock is fairly priced by taking the expected future cash flows and discounting them to their present value. This will be done using the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model. It may sound complicated, but actually it is quite simple!

Remember though, that there are many ways to estimate a company's value, and a DCF is just one method. If you still have some burning questions about this type of valuation, take a look at the Simply Wall St analysis model.

See our latest analysis for PVR

### Step by step through the calculation

We use what is known as a 2-stage model, which simply means we have two different periods of growth rates for the company's cash flows. Generally the first stage is higher growth, and the second stage is a lower growth phase. To begin with, we have to get estimates of the next ten years of cash flows. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren't available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.

Generally we assume that a dollar today is more valuable than a dollar in the future, and so the sum of these future cash flows is then discounted to today's value:

#### 10-year free cash flow (FCF) forecast

 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 Levered FCF (â‚¹, Millions) -â‚¹2.10b â‚¹5.93b â‚¹5.83b â‚¹11.9b â‚¹12.9b â‚¹13.8b â‚¹14.8b â‚¹15.8b â‚¹16.9b â‚¹18.0b Growth Rate Estimate Source Analyst x16 Analyst x16 Analyst x15 Analyst x1 Analyst x1 Est @ 7.09% Est @ 6.98% Est @ 6.91% Est @ 6.86% Est @ 6.82% Present Value (â‚¹, Millions) Discounted @ 14% -â‚¹1.8k â‚¹4.6k â‚¹3.9k â‚¹7.1k â‚¹6.7k â‚¹6.3k â‚¹5.9k â‚¹5.5k â‚¹5.2k â‚¹4.9k

("Est" = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF) = â‚¹48b

After calculating the present value of future cash flows in the initial 10-year period, we need to calculate the Terminal Value, which accounts for all future cash flows beyond the first stage. The Gordon Growth formula is used to calculate Terminal Value at a future annual growth rate equal to the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield of 6.7%. We discount the terminal cash flows to today's value at a cost of equity of 14%.

Terminal Value (TV)= FCF2031 Ã— (1 + g) Ã· (r â€“ g) = â‚¹18bÃ— (1 + 6.7%) Ã· (14%â€“ 6.7%) = â‚¹265b

Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)10= â‚¹265bÃ· ( 1 + 14%)10= â‚¹71b

The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is â‚¹120b. To get the intrinsic value per share, we divide this by the total number of shares outstanding. Relative to the current share price of â‚¹1.6k, the company appears about fair value at a 18% discount to where the stock price trades currently. Remember though, that this is just an approximate valuation, and like any complex formula - garbage in, garbage out.

### The assumptions

We would point out that the most important inputs to a discounted cash flow are the discount rate and of course the actual cash flows. Part of investing is coming up with your own evaluation of a company's future performance, so try the calculation yourself and check your own assumptions. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company's future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company's potential performance. Given that we are looking at PVR as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we've used 14%, which is based on a levered beta of 1.167. Beta is a measure of a stock's volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.

Although the valuation of a company is important, it shouldn't be the only metric you look at when researching a company. The DCF model is not a perfect stock valuation tool. Instead the best use for a DCF model is to test certain assumptions and theories to see if they would lead to the company being undervalued or overvalued. For instance, if the terminal value growth rate is adjusted slightly, it can dramatically alter the overall result. For PVR, we've put together three additional elements you should look at:

1. Financial Health: Does PVR have a healthy balance sheet? Take a look at our free balance sheet analysis with six simple checks on key factors like leverage and risk.
2. Future Earnings: How does PVR's growth rate compare to its peers and the wider market? Dig deeper into the analyst consensus number for the upcoming years by interacting with our free analyst growth expectation chart.
3. Other Solid Businesses: Low debt, high returns on equity and good past performance are fundamental to a strong business. Why not explore our interactive list of stocks with solid business fundamentals to see if there are other companies you may not have considered!

PS. The Simply Wall St app conducts a discounted cash flow valuation for every stock on the NSEI every day. If you want to find the calculation for other stocks just search here.

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