# Calculating The Fair Value Of PayGroup Limited (ASX:PYG)

By
Simply Wall St
Published
February 02, 2021

Today we'll do a simple run through of a valuation method used to estimate the attractiveness of PayGroup Limited (ASX:PYG) as an investment opportunity by estimating the company's future cash flows and discounting them to their present value. We will use the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model on this occasion. It may sound complicated, but actually it is quite simple!

We would caution that there are many ways of valuing a company and, like the DCF, each technique has advantages and disadvantages in certain scenarios. If you still have some burning questions about this type of valuation, take a look at the Simply Wall St analysis model.

See our latest analysis for PayGroup

### The method

We're using the 2-stage growth model, which simply means we take in account two stages of company's growth. In the initial period the company may have a higher growth rate and the second stage is usually assumed to have a stable growth rate. In the first stage we need to estimate the cash flows to the business over the next ten years. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren't available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.

A DCF is all about the idea that a dollar in the future is less valuable than a dollar today, so we discount the value of these future cash flows to their estimated value in today's dollars:

#### 10-year free cash flow (FCF) forecast

 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 Levered FCF (A\$, Millions) -AU\$5.20m AU\$1.00m AU\$2.30m AU\$2.94m AU\$3.52m AU\$4.04m AU\$4.48m AU\$4.84m AU\$5.15m AU\$5.41m Growth Rate Estimate Source Analyst x1 Analyst x1 Analyst x1 Est @ 27.7% Est @ 19.99% Est @ 14.6% Est @ 10.82% Est @ 8.18% Est @ 6.33% Est @ 5.03% Present Value (A\$, Millions) Discounted @ 7.1% -AU\$4.9 AU\$0.9 AU\$1.9 AU\$2.2 AU\$2.5 AU\$2.7 AU\$2.8 AU\$2.8 AU\$2.8 AU\$2.7

("Est" = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF) = AU\$16m

We now need to calculate the Terminal Value, which accounts for all the future cash flows after this ten year period. For a number of reasons a very conservative growth rate is used that cannot exceed that of a country's GDP growth. In this case we have used the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield (2.0%) to estimate future growth. In the same way as with the 10-year 'growth' period, we discount future cash flows to today's value, using a cost of equity of 7.1%.

Terminal Value (TV)= FCF2030 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = AU\$5.4m× (1 + 2.0%) ÷ (7.1%– 2.0%) = AU\$108m

Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)10= AU\$108m÷ ( 1 + 7.1%)10= AU\$54m

The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is AU\$70m. The last step is to then divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. Relative to the current share price of AU\$0.7, the company appears about fair value at a 18% discount to where the stock price trades currently. Valuations are imprecise instruments though, rather like a telescope - move a few degrees and end up in a different galaxy. Do keep this in mind.

### The assumptions

The calculation above is very dependent on two assumptions. The first is the discount rate and the other is the cash flows. You don't have to agree with these inputs, I recommend redoing the calculations yourself and playing with them. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company's future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company's potential performance. Given that we are looking at PayGroup as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we've used 7.1%, which is based on a levered beta of 0.978. Beta is a measure of a stock's volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.

Although the valuation of a company is important, it shouldn't be the only metric you look at when researching a company. DCF models are not the be-all and end-all of investment valuation. Preferably you'd apply different cases and assumptions and see how they would impact the company's valuation. If a company grows at a different rate, or if its cost of equity or risk free rate changes sharply, the output can look very different. For PayGroup, there are three additional elements you should assess:

1. Risks: Consider for instance, the ever-present spectre of investment risk. We've identified 3 warning signs with PayGroup , and understanding them should be part of your investment process.
2. Future Earnings: How does PYG's growth rate compare to its peers and the wider market? Dig deeper into the analyst consensus number for the upcoming years by interacting with our free analyst growth expectation chart.
3. Other High Quality Alternatives: Do you like a good all-rounder? Explore our interactive list of high quality stocks to get an idea of what else is out there you may be missing!

PS. Simply Wall St updates its DCF calculation for every Australian stock every day, so if you want to find the intrinsic value of any other stock just search here.

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This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. We aim to bring you long-term focused analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest price-sensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in any stocks mentioned.
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