Stock Analysis

Estimating The Fair Value Of Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (NSE:BPCL)

NSEI:BPCL
Source: Shutterstock

In this article we are going to estimate the intrinsic value of Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (NSE:BPCL) by taking the expected future cash flows and discounting them to their present value. We will use the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model on this occasion. Believe it or not, it's not too difficult to follow, as you'll see from our example!

We generally believe that a company's value is the present value of all of the cash it will generate in the future. However, a DCF is just one valuation metric among many, and it is not without flaws. For those who are keen learners of equity analysis, the Simply Wall St analysis model here may be something of interest to you.

Check out our latest analysis for Bharat Petroleum

The model

We're using the 2-stage growth model, which simply means we take in account two stages of company's growth. In the initial period the company may have a higher growth rate and the second stage is usually assumed to have a stable growth rate. To start off with, we need to estimate the next ten years of cash flows. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren't available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.

A DCF is all about the idea that a dollar in the future is less valuable than a dollar today, so we need to discount the sum of these future cash flows to arrive at a present value estimate:

10-year free cash flow (FCF) estimate

2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031
Levered FCF (₹, Millions) ₹96.1b ₹79.1b ₹89.9b ₹97.7b ₹105.6b ₹113.7b ₹122.1b ₹130.9b ₹140.2b ₹149.9b
Growth Rate Estimate Source Analyst x8 Analyst x8 Analyst x7 Est @ 8.67% Est @ 8.09% Est @ 7.68% Est @ 7.4% Est @ 7.2% Est @ 7.06% Est @ 6.96%
Present Value (₹, Millions) Discounted @ 17% ₹81.9k ₹57.4k ₹55.6k ₹51.5k ₹47.5k ₹43.6k ₹39.9k ₹36.4k ₹33.2k ₹30.3k

("Est" = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF) = ₹477b

The second stage is also known as Terminal Value, this is the business's cash flow after the first stage. The Gordon Growth formula is used to calculate Terminal Value at a future annual growth rate equal to the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield of 6.7%. We discount the terminal cash flows to today's value at a cost of equity of 17%.

Terminal Value (TV)= FCF2031 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = ₹150b× (1 + 6.7%) ÷ (17%– 6.7%) = ₹1.5t

Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)10= ₹1.5t÷ ( 1 + 17%)10= ₹305b

The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is ₹782b. To get the intrinsic value per share, we divide this by the total number of shares outstanding. Relative to the current share price of ₹348, the company appears about fair value at a 3.4% discount to where the stock price trades currently. Remember though, that this is just an approximate valuation, and like any complex formula - garbage in, garbage out.

dcf
NSEI:BPCL Discounted Cash Flow March 6th 2022

Important assumptions

Now the most important inputs to a discounted cash flow are the discount rate, and of course, the actual cash flows. If you don't agree with these result, have a go at the calculation yourself and play with the assumptions. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company's future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company's potential performance. Given that we are looking at Bharat Petroleum as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we've used 17%, which is based on a levered beta of 1.653. Beta is a measure of a stock's volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.

Next Steps:

Valuation is only one side of the coin in terms of building your investment thesis, and it shouldn't be the only metric you look at when researching a company. It's not possible to obtain a foolproof valuation with a DCF model. Preferably you'd apply different cases and assumptions and see how they would impact the company's valuation. For instance, if the terminal value growth rate is adjusted slightly, it can dramatically alter the overall result. For Bharat Petroleum, there are three fundamental factors you should explore:

  1. Risks: To that end, you should learn about the 4 warning signs we've spotted with Bharat Petroleum (including 1 which shouldn't be ignored) .
  2. Future Earnings: How does BPCL's growth rate compare to its peers and the wider market? Dig deeper into the analyst consensus number for the upcoming years by interacting with our free analyst growth expectation chart.
  3. Other High Quality Alternatives: Do you like a good all-rounder? Explore our interactive list of high quality stocks to get an idea of what else is out there you may be missing!

PS. Simply Wall St updates its DCF calculation for every Indian stock every day, so if you want to find the intrinsic value of any other stock just search here.

Valuation is complex, but we're helping make it simple.

Find out whether Bharat Petroleum is potentially over or undervalued by checking out our comprehensive analysis, which includes fair value estimates, risks and warnings, dividends, insider transactions and financial health.

View the Free Analysis

Have feedback on this article? Concerned about the content? Get in touch with us directly. Alternatively, email editorial-team (at) simplywallst.com.

This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. We provide commentary based on historical data and analyst forecasts only using an unbiased methodology and our articles are not intended to be financial advice. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. We aim to bring you long-term focused analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest price-sensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in any stocks mentioned.