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# Estimating The Fair Value Of Immsi S.p.A. (BIT:IMS)

Today we’ll do a simple run through of a valuation method used to estimate the attractiveness of Immsi S.p.A. (BIT:IMS) as an investment opportunity by taking the expected future cash flows and discounting them to their present value. I will be using the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model. Don’t get put off by the jargon, the math behind it is actually quite straightforward.

Companies can be valued in a lot of ways, so we would point out that a DCF is not perfect for every situation. Anyone interested in learning a bit more about intrinsic value should have a read of the Simply Wall St analysis model.

### The calculation

We are going to use a two-stage DCF model, which, as the name states, takes into account two stages of growth. The first stage is generally a higher growth period which levels off heading towards the terminal value, captured in the second ‘steady growth’ period. In the first stage we need to estimate the cash flows to the business over the next ten years. Seeing as no analyst estimates of free cash flow are available to us, we have extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the company’s last reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow are will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.

A DCF is all about the idea that a dollar in the future is less valuable than a dollar today, so we discount the value of these future cash flows to their estimated value in today’s dollars:

#### 10-year free cash flow (FCF) estimate

 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 Levered FCF (€, Millions) €35.3 €34.0 €33.5 €33.3 €33.6 €34.0 €34.6 €35.4 €36.2 €37.2 Growth Rate Estimate Source Est @ -6.54% Est @ -3.7% Est @ -1.71% Est @ -0.32% Est @ 0.66% Est @ 1.34% Est @ 1.82% Est @ 2.15% Est @ 2.39% Est @ 2.55% Present Value (€, Millions) Discounted @ 20.97% €29.2 €23.3 €18.9 €15.6 €13.0 €10.9 €9.1 €7.7 €6.5 €5.5

Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF)= €139.66m

“Est” = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St

After calculating the present value of future cash flows in the intial 10-year period, we need to calculate the Terminal Value, which accounts for all future cash flows beyond the first stage. For a number of reasons a very conservative growth rate is used that cannot exceed that of a country’s GDP growth. In this case we have used the 10-year government bond rate (2.9%) to estimate future growth. In the same way as with the 10-year ‘growth’ period, we discount future cash flows to today’s value, using a cost of equity of 21%.

Terminal Value (TV) = FCF2029 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = €37m × (1 + 2.9%) ÷ (21% – 2.9%) = €212m

Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV) = TV / (1 + r)10 = €€212m ÷ ( 1 + 21%)10 = €31.58m

The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is €171.23m. To get the intrinsic value per share, we divide this by the total number of shares outstanding. This results in an intrinsic value estimate of €0.50. Relative to the current share price of €0.51, the company appears around fair value at the time of writing. DCFs are imprecise instruments though, rather like a telescope – move a few degrees and end up in a different galaxy. Do keep this in mind.

### Important assumptions

Now the most important inputs to a discounted cash flow are the discount rate, and of course, the actual cash flows. You don’t have to agree with these inputs, I recommend redoing the calculations yourself and playing with them. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company’s future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company’s potential performance. Given that we are looking at Immsi as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we’ve used 21%, which is based on a levered beta of 2. Beta is a measure of a stock’s volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.

### Next Steps:

Whilst important, DCF calculation shouldn’t be the only metric you look at when researching a company. The DCF model is not a perfect stock valuation tool. Rather it should be seen as a guide to “what assumptions need to be true for this stock to be under/overvalued?” If a company grows at a different rate, or if its cost of equity or risk free rate changes sharply, the output can look very different. For Immsi, I’ve put together three further aspects you should further research:

1. Financial Health: Does IMS have a healthy balance sheet? Take a look at our free balance sheet analysis with six simple checks on key factors like leverage and risk.
2. Other High Quality Alternatives: Are there other high quality stocks you could be holding instead of IMS? Explore our interactive list of high quality stocks to get an idea of what else is out there you may be missing!

PS. Simply Wall St updates its DCF calculation for every IT stock every day, so if you want to find the intrinsic value of any other stock just search here.

We aim to bring you long-term focused research analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest price-sensitive company announcements or qualitative material.

If you spot an error that warrants correction, please contact the editor at editorial-team@simplywallst.com. This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. Simply Wall St has no position in the stocks mentioned. Thank you for reading.